## How to Calculate Load on Column, Beam & Slab?

**How to Calculate Load on Column, Beam & Slab?**

For the total Load Calculation on Columns, Beams, and Slab we must know about various loads coming on the column. Generally, the Column, Beam, and Slab arrangement are seen in a frame type of structure.

In the frame structure, the load is transferred slab to beam, beam to column and ultimately it reached the foundation of the building.

For load calculation of the building, loads on the following elements are to be calculated,

Also Read: Pitched Roof

**What Is Column?**

Column length is generally 3 times their least lateral cross-sectional dimension. The Strength of any column mainly depends on its shape and size of cross-section, length, location, and position of the column.

A Column is a vertical component in a building structure, which is mainly designed to carry the compressive and buckling load. The column is one of the important structural members of the building structure. As per the Load coming on the column, size is increased or decreased.

**What is Beam?**

The Beam is a horizontal structural member in building construction, which is designed to carry shear force, and bending moment, and transfer the load to columns on both ends of it.

Beam’s bottom portion experiences tension force and upper portion compression force. Therefore, More steel reinforcement is provided at the bottom compared to the top of the beam.

**What is Slab?**

The slab is a level structural element of the building that is provided to create a flat hard surface. These flat surfaces of slabs are utilized for making floors, roofs, and ceilings.

It is a horizontal structural member whose size may vary depending upon the structure size and area and its thickness also may vary.

But the slab minimum thickness is specified for normal construction around 125 mm. Generally, every slab is supported by a beam, column, and wall around it.

**How do you structural load calculation?**

Density of bricks varies between 1500 to 2000 kg per cubic meter. For a 6″ thick wall of 3 meter height and a length of 1 meter, we can calculate the load per running meter to be equal to 0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg which is equivalent to 9 kN/meter. You can calculate load per running meter for any brick type using this technique.

For autoclaved, aerated concrete blocks like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter is between 550 to 700 kg per cubic meter. By using these blocks for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 4 kN/meter, which can result in a significant reduction in the cost of construction.

Also Read: Construction Material Calculator Excel

**Column Design Calculation**

**1. Load Calculation on Column**

we know that the Self-weight of Concrete is around 2400 kg/m3, which is equivalent to 240 kN and the Self-weight of Steel is around 8000 kg/m3.

So, if we assume a column size of 230 mm x 600 mm with 1% steel and 3 meters standard height, the self-weight of the column is around 1000 kg per floor, which is equal to 10 kN.

Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 3 =0.414m³

Weight of Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 = 993.6 kg

Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete = 0.414x 0.01 x 8000 = 33 kg

Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg = 10KN

While doing column design calculations, we assume the self-weight of columns is between 10 to 15 kN per floor.

**2. Beam Load Calculation**

We adopt the same method of calculations for beams also.

we assume each meter of the beam has dimensions of 230 mm x 450 mm excluding slab thickness.

Assume each (1m) meter of the beam has a dimension

= 355 kg/m = 3.5 KN/m

230 mm x 450 mm excluding slab.

Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 1 =0.138m³

Weight of Concrete = 0.138 x 2400 = 333 kg

Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.138 x 0.02 x 8000 = 22 kg

Total Weight of Column = 333 + 22

So, the self-weight will be around 3.5 kN per running meter.

**3. Wall Load Calculation**

we know that the Density of bricks varies between 1500 to 2000 kg per cubic meter.

For a 6-inch thick Brick wall of 3-meter height and a length of 1 meter,

The load / running meter to be equal to 0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg,

which is equivalent to 9 kN/meter.

This method can be adopted for load calculations of Brick per running meter for any brick type using this technique.

For aerated concrete blocks and autoclaved concrete blocks, like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter is between 550 to 700 kg per cubic meter.

if you are using these blocks for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 4 kN/meter, the use of this block can significantly reduce the cost of the project.

**4. Slab Load Calculation**

Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm.

So, the Self-weight of each square meter of the slab would be

= 0.125 x 1 x 2400 = 300 kg which is equivalent to 3 kN.

Now, If we consider the Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and the superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter.

So, from the above data, we can estimate the slab load to be around 6 to 7 kN per square meter.

**5. The Factor of Safety**

In the end, after calculating the entire load on a column, do not forget to add in the factor of safety, which is most important for any building design for the safe and convenient performance of the building during its design life duration.

This is important when Load Calculation on Column is done.

As Per IS 456:2000, the factor of safety is 1.5.

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